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    VIDEOS PARLANCE PERFORMANCE VIDEOS VIDEO CONCERT PREVIEWS PARLOFF MULTIMEDIA LECTURES AND INTERVIEWS Watch in full screen Go to the video you'd like to watch. Press the red button with white arrow to play video. At the bottom-right of the video player, click full screen icon. March 10, 2024 Michael Parloff Introduces Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 Richard Goode, piano JANUARY 14, 2024 Michael Parloff Introduces Anton Webern’s Langsamer Satz for String Quartet Anton Webern’s Langsamer Satz Goldmund String Quartet Michael Parloff Introduces Alexander Borodin’s String Quartet No. 2 in D Alexander Borodin’s Quartet No. 2 in D Major Goldmund String Quartet Robert Schumann’s Quartet No. 3 in A, Op. 42, No. 3 Goldmund String Quartet DECEMBER 3, 2023 Bruce Adolphe and Michael Parloff discuss Bruce Adolphe's “Memory Believes (a requiem)” Bruce Adolphe: Memory Believes (a requiem) Brentano String Quartet & Antioch Chamber Ensemble (choir) October 15, 2023 Michael Parloff Introduces Amanda Maier’s Piano Trio in E-flat Major Amanda Maier’s Piano Trio in E-flat Major The Lysander Piano Trio MAY 21, 2023 Michael Parloff Introduces Béla Bartók’s Rhapsody No. 1 for cello and piano Béla Bartók’s Rhapsody No. 1 for cello and piano, BB94c, Sz. 88 Zlatomir Fung, cello; Albert Cano Smit, piano Sergei Rachmaninoff’s Trio élégiaque No. 2, Op. 9 Kevin Zhu, violin; Zlatomir Fung, cello; Albert Cano Smit APRIL 2, 2023 Brahms’s E-minor Cello Sonata, Op. 38 Paul Watkins, cello; Boris Berman, piano MARCH 19, 2023 Bach’s French Suite in C minor, BWV 813 Rachel Naomi Kudo, piano Three Bach Transcriptions by Egon Petri and Ferruccio Busoni Rachel Naomi Kudo, piano Bach’s Italian Concerto, BWV 971 Rachel Naomi Kudo, piano FEBRUARY 12, 2023 Three Pieces by Fritz Kreisler Benjamin Beilman, violin; Gloria Chien, piano Michael Parloff Introduces Johann Strauss’s Emperor Waltz and Korngold’s Suite, Op. 23 (arr. Schoenberg) Johann Strauss’s Emperor Waltz; Arranged for Chamber Ensemble by Arnold Schoenberg Gloria Chien, piano; Benjamin Beilman and Alexi Kenney, violin; Milena Pajaro-Van de Stadt, viola; Mihai Marica, cello; Yoobin Son, flute; Pascual Martínez-Forteza, clarinet Michael Introduces Erich Korngold’s Suite for Two Violins, Cello, and Piano Left-Hand, Op. 23 Erich Korngold - Suite for 2 violins, cello, and piano left-hand; Parlance Chamber Concerts Gloria Chien, piano; Benjamin Beilman and Alexi Kenney, violin; Mihai Marica, cello JANUARY 29, 2023 Mozart, Divertimento in F, K. 318 The Danish String Quartet Benjamin Britten, Three Divertimenti The Danish String Quartet Elvis Presley, Can’t Help Falling in Love, arr. Danish String Quartet The Danish String Quartet DECEMBER 4, 2022 Sam Perkin, Freakshow The Sitkovetsky Trio NOVEMBER 20, 2022 Michael Parloff Introduces Erwin Schulhoff’s Hot Sonata for Saxophone and Piano Erwin Schulhoff’s Hot Sonata Steven Banks, saxophone and Xak Bjerken, piano Michael Parloff Introduces Claude Debussy’s Rapsodie for Saxophone and Piano Claude Debussy’s Rapsodie for Saxophone and Piano Steven Banks, saxophone and Xak Bjerken, piano OCTOBER 30, 2022 Brahms, String Sextet No. 2 in G, Op. 36 Emerson String Quartet with Guillermo Figueroa, viola, and David Finckel, cello NOVEMBER 14, 2021 Michael Parloff introduces Mendelssohn’s String Quartet in A minor, Op. 13 Mendelssohn, String Quartet in A minor, Op. 13 Schumann String Quartet Ravel, String Quartet in F Schumann String Quartet FEBRUARY 16, 2020 Verdi, Caro Nome (from Rigoletto) Meigui Zhang, soprano; Ken Noda, piano JANUARY 19, 2020 Beethoven, Sonata in C# minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (“Moonlight”) Paul Lewis, piano DECEMBER 15, 2019 Michael Parloff introduces Stravinsky’s “The Soldiers Tale” (Music from the 1918 pandemic) Stravinsky, “The Soldier’s Tale” Benjamin Luxon, narrator; Benjamin Beilman, violin; Innhyuck Cho, clarinet; Frank Morelli, Bassoon; Chris Coletti, trumpet; Demian Austin, trombone; David J. Grossman, bass; Ian Rosenbaum, percussion; Anni Crofut, dancer-choreographer OCTOBER 27, 2019 Boccherini, String Quartet in C, Op. 2, No. 6 Quartetto di Cremona Respighi, String Quartet No. 3 in D Quartetto di Cremona Verdi, “Quando le sere al placido” (from Luisa Miller) Quartetto di Cremona MAY 19, 2019 Michael Parloff introduces Mozart’s Adagio & Rondo, K. 617 for glass harmonica, flute, oboe, viola, and cello Mozart, Adagio & Rondo, K. 617 Friedrich Heinrich Kern, glass harmonica; Chelsea Knox, flute; Elaine Douvas, oboe; Jeremy Berry, viola; Estelle Choi, cello APRIL 14, 2019 Michael Parloff Introduces Corelli’s “La Folia” Violin Sonata in D minor, Op. 5, No. 12 Corelli (arrg. Poxon), “La Folia”: Sonata in D minor, Op. 5, No. 12 Anne Akiko Meyers, violin; Jason Vieaux, guitar Michael Parloff introduces Rentarō Taki’s Kōjō no Tsuki (The Moon Over the Ruined Castle) Rentarō Taki, Kōjō no Tsuki (The Moon Over the Ruined Castle) Anne Akiko Meyers, Violin Elvis Presley, Can’t Help Falling in Love Anne Akiko Meyers, violin, and Jason Vieaux, guitar MARCH 24, 2019 Bach, Violin and Keyboard Sonata in E Major, BWV 1016 Sarah Crocker Vonsattel, violin, and Gilles Vonsattel Bach, Keyboard Concerto in D minor, BWV 1052 Gilles Vonsattel, piano soloist, and chamber orchestra JANUARY 27, 2019 Michael Parloff Introduces Beethoven’s “Kakadu Variations,” Op. 121A Beethoven, “Kakadu Variations”, Op. 121A for piano trio Pinchas Zukerman Piano Trio Anton Arensky, Piano Trio in D minor, Op. 32 Pinchas Zukerman Piano Trio DECEMBER 16, 2018 Michael Parloff introduces Shostakovich’s String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, Op. 110 Shostakovich, String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, Op. 110 Emerson String Quartet Schubert, String Quintet in C Major, D. 956, Op.Posth 163 Emerson String Quartet with cellist David Finckel NOVEMBER 4, 2018 Saint-Saëns: Carnival of the Animals Alessio Bax & Lucille Chung, pianos with Members of the New York Philharmonic Michael Parloff introduces Vivaldi’s Flute Concerto in D, Op. 10, No. 3 (“The Goldfinch”) Vivaldi, Flute Concerto in D, Op. 10, No. 3 (“The Goldfinch”) Yoobin Son, flute Members of the New York Philharmonic SEPTEMBER 23, 2018 Michael Parloff introduces Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 14 in E flat, K. 449 (Chamber Version) Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 14 in E flat, K. 449 Michael Brown, piano, and string quintet Schubert, Rondo in A, D. 438, for violin and string quartet Sean Lee, violin, and string quartet Chausson, Concerto in D, Op. 21, for violin, piano, and string quartet Arnaud Sussmann, violin; Michael Brown, piano, and string quartet APRIL 8, 2018 Michael Parloff Introduces Beethoven’s Quartet in F, Op. 59, No. 1 (Razumovsky No. 1) Ludwig van Beethoven: Quartet in F, Op. 59, No. 1 Danish String Quartet Michael Parloff Introduces Beethoven’s Quartet in C# minor, Op. 131 Ludwig van Beethoven: Quartet in C# Minor, Op. 131 Danish String Quartet MARCH 11, 2018 Beethoven, Sonata No. 10 in G, Op. 96 for violin and piano Benjamin Beilman, violin, and Orion Weiss, piano Ravel, “Blues” from Sonata No. 2 in G, for violin and piano Benjamin Beilman, violin, and Orion Weiss, piano A pre-performance conversation about Frederic Rzewski’s “Demons” (2017) Michael Parloff interviews Benjamin Beilman and Orion Weiss Frederic Rzewski, “Demons” (2017) for violin and piano Benjamin Beilman, violin, and Orion Weiss, piano FEBRUARY 17, 2018 Michael Parloff introduces the history of Haydn’s “Seven Last Words of Christ.” (5 minutes) Haydn, “The Seven Last Words of Christ” Chiara String Quartet Michael Parloff’s multimedia lecture on the history and music of Haydn’s “Seven Last Words of Christ” (55 minutes) DECEMBER 17, 2017 Rachmaninoff, Romance from Suite No. 2, Op. 17 for 2 pianos) Alessio Bax and Lucille Chung, pianos Rachmaninoff, Tarantella from Suite No. 2, Op. 17 for 2 pianos Alessio Bax and Lucille Chung, pianos Lutosławski, Variations on a Theme of Paganini for 2 pianos Alessio Bax and Lucille Chung, pianos NOVEMBER 19, 2017 Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, Mvt. 1 Los Angeles Guitar Quartet Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, Mvts. 2 & 3 Los Angeles Guitar Quartet OCTOBER 29, 2017 Michael Parloff Introduces Mozart’s Adagio in B minor, K. 540 Mozart, Adagio in B minor, K. 540 Peter Serkin, piano Mozart, Sonata in B-Flat Major, K. 570 Peter Serkin, piano Bach, The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988 Peter Serkin, piano SEPTEMBER 24, 2017 Michael Parloff introduces Mendelssohn’s Octet for Strings, Op. 20 Mendelssohn, String Octet in E-flat, Op. 20 Arnaud Sussmann, Sean Lee, Emily Daggett Smith, & Danbi Um, violins; Mark Holloway & Paul Neubauer, violas; Rafael Figueroa & Mihai Marica, cellos Strolling Violist Paul Neubauer plays Schulenburg’s Puszta-Märchen Fauré, Romance in B-flat, Op. 28 for violin and piano Arnaud Sussmann, violin, and Michael Brown, piano Saint-Saëns, Romance in F, Op. 36 for cello and piano Mihai Marica, and Michael Brown, piano MARCH 26, 2017 Michael Parloff introduces Haydn’s Quartet in D, Op. 64, No. 5 (The Lark) Joseph Haydn, Quartet in D, Op. 64, No. 5 (The Lark) Jerusalem String Quartet DECEMBER 18, 2016 Gilad Cohen, Trio for a Spry Clarinet, Weeping Cello, and Ruminative Harp Michael Parloff interviews the composer followed by the trio performance Michael Parloff introduces Debussy’s Sacred and Profane Dances & Ravel’s Introduction and Allegro Claude Debussy, Sacred and Profane Dances Harpist Mariko Anraku with Met Orchestra principal musicians Maurice Ravel, Introduction and Allegro Harpist Emmanuel Ceysson with Met Orchestra principal musicians NOVEMBER 20, 2016 Michael Parloff introduces Dvořák’s Quartet No. 12 in F (American Quartet) Antonín Dvořák, String Quartet No. 12 in F (American) New York Philharmonic String Quartet George Gershwin, Lullaby New York Philharmonic String Quartet OCTOBER 30, 2016 Michael Parloff introduces Shostakovich’s Piano Trio No. 1 in C minor, Op. 8 Shostakovich, Piano Trio No. 1 in C minor, Op. 8 Wu Han, piano; David Finckel, cello; Philip Setzer, violin APRIL 3, 2016 Bach, Badinerie from Suite in B Minor BWV 1067 Sir James Galway, flute Benjamin Beilman and Danbi Um, violins Mark Holloway, viola; Nicholas Canellakis, cello Timothy Cobb, bass; Paolo Bordignon, harpsichord MARCH 6, 2016 Michael Parloff introduces Schubert’s String Quartet in D minor, K. 810 (“Death and the Maiden”) Escher String Quartet Schubert, String Quartet in D minor (“Death and the Maiden”), Mvts 1 & 2 Escher String Quartet Schubert, String Quartet in D minor (“Death and the Maiden”), Mvts 3 & 4 Escher String Quartet DECEMBER 13, 2015 Michael Parloff introduces Beethoven’s Cello Sonata No. 4 in C Paul Watkins, cello, Gilles Vonsattel, piano Beethoven, Cello Sonata in C, Op. 102, No. 1 – Full Performance Paul Watkins, cello, Gilles Vonsattel, piano Michael Parloff introduces Beethoven’s Violin Sonata No. 9 in A, Op. 47 (The “Bridgetower-Kreutzer”) Beethoven: Violin Sonata No. 9 Violin Sonata No. 9 in A, Op. 47 (The “Bridgetower-Kreutzer”) Kristin Lee, violin; Gilles Vonsattel, piano NOVEMBER 15, 2015 Charles Ives: Violin Sonata No. 1 Stefan Jackiw, violin; Jeremy Denk, piano and speaker OCTOBER 4, 2015 Mozart, Sonata in F, K. 563 & K. 494 Richard Goode, piano Brahms: 4 Klavierstücke, Op. 119 Richard Goode, piano APRIL 26, 2015 Jules Styne, I Fall in Love Too Easily Stefon Harris, vibraphone/marimba, Alex Brown, piano MARCH 29, 2015 Frederic Weatherly, Danny Boy Matthew Polenzani, tenor, Ken Noda, piano Ravel, Five Popular Greek Songs Matthew Polenzani, tenor, Ken Noda, piano Michael Parloff introduces Samuel Barber’s Hermit Songs Samuel Barber, Hermit Songs, Op. 69 Matthew Polenzani, tenor; Ken Noda, piano Beethoven, Adelaide Matthew Polenzani, tenor; Ken Noda, piano FEBRUARY 8, 2015 Michael Parloff introduces Prokofiev’s Cello Sonata in C, Op. 119 Prokofiev, Cello Sonata in C, Op. 119 David Finckel, cello, Wu Han, piano JANUARY 4, 2015 Beethoven, Quartet No. 12 in E-flat, Op. 127 Emerson String Quartet Movement 1 Movement 2 Movement 3 Movement 4 NOVEMBER 2, 2014 Manuel de Falla, Polo from Seven Popular Songs Isabel Leonard, mezzo-soprano, Sharon Isbin, guitar OCTOBER 5, 2014 Mozart, Violin Sonata in E Minor, K. 308 Arnaud Sussmann, violin, Gilles Vonsattel, piano Michael Parloff introduces Mozart’s Violin Sonata in E minor, K. 308 Movement 1 Movement 2 OCTOBER 5, 2014 Brahms, Piano Quintet in F minor, 3rd Movement Erin Keefe, Arnaud Sussmann, violins, Hsin-Yun Huang viola, Rafael Figueroa, cello, Gilles Vonsattel, piano APRIL 27, 2014 William Walton, Façade Highlights Stephanie Blythe & Raymond Menard, reciters, Members of the Met Orchestra, Michael Parloff, conductor JANUARY 27, 2013 Beethoven, Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat, Op. 110 Richard Goode, piano Movement 1 Movement 2 Movement 3 OCTOBER 31, 2012 Mozart, Concerto in C, K. 299 for Flute and Harp Stefán Höskuldsson, flute, Deborah Hoffman, harp, Members of the Met Orchestra, Michael Parloff, conductor Michael Parloff introduces Mozart’s Concerto for Flute and Harp, K. 299 Movement 1 Movement 2 Movement 3 Prokofiev, Peter and the Wolf (Introducing the instrumental characters) Midge Woolsey, narrator, Members of the Met Orchestra, Michael Parloff, conductor Prokofiev, Peter and the Wolf (Complete performance) Midge Woolsey, narrator, Members of the Met Orchestra, Michael Parloff, conductor SEPTEMBER 23, 2012 Reicha: Sinfonia in D, Op. 12 for four flutes Sir James Galway, Robert Langevin, Stefán Höskuldsson, Denis Bouriakov, flutes Movement 1 Movement 2 Movement 3 Movement 4

  • Clair de lune, CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918)

    CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) Clair de lune November 12, 2023: Angel Blue, soprano; Bryan Wagorn, piano Debussy was enchanted by the poetry of Paul Verlaine. Around 1890 he composed Suite bergamasque, a set of piano pieces taking its title from a line of Verlaine’s famous poem Clair de lune. That poem had appeared in a collection of poems entitled Fêtes galantes, which in turn were inspired by the paintings of Watteau and his followers. In these paintings idealized landscapes of parks and gardens in the twilight are often populated by revelers in costumes of the tragic-comic characters of the commedia dell-arte—Harlequin, Pierrot, Colombine, and company. Originally Debussy had called the present piece “Promenade sentimentale” after another Verlaine poem, but when he polished the Suite bergamasque for publication in 1905 he changed the title to Clair de lune (Moonlight). Since that time the piece has taken on a life of its own, having become extraordinarily popular and, sad to say, trivialized. Its luminous qualities and inspired construction, however, should inspire listeners to look beyond its familiarity. That amazing opening—how it just hangs there then gently descends as silvery light from the moon! The rhythmic freedom gives the feeling of floating as does the delay of the anchoring pitch of the home key. Debussy, like his contemporary Ravel, was justly famous for his water imagery. The rippling central section no doubt responds to the line in Verlaine’s poem describing the moonlight bringing sobs of ecstasy to the fountains. The ending is magical—Debussy fragments the theme as moonlight would be broken up by shadows and allows it to die away in a haunting final cadence. —©Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes

  • Cinq mélodies populaires grecques, MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937)

    MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937) Cinq mélodies populaires grecques March 29, 2015 – Matthew Polenzani, tenor; Ken Noda, piano Early in 1904 French musicologist and philologist Pierre Aubry was preparing a lecture on Greek and Armenian folklore entitled “Songs of the Oppressed,” and he asked Greek-born fellow musicologist and critic Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi to provide some examples from Greece. Singer Louise Thomasset agreed to perform them on short notice, but only with piano accompaniment, so Calvocoressi enlisted the help of his longtime friend Ravel. They selected five folk songs—four out of Pericles Matsa’s Chansons (Constantinople, 1883) and the fifth, “Les cueilleuses de lentisques,” from a Hubert Pernot collection entitled Chansons populaires de l’le de Chio. Ravel came up with the accompaniments in only thirty-six hours—his first foray into folk settings—and the lecture-demonstration duly took place on February 20 at the Sorbonne. The following year Ravel decided that three of the songs were “too brief,” so he arranged three others from the Pernot collection, which together with two of the originals, “Quel galant” and “Chanson des cueilleuses,” now make up his Cinq mélodies populaires grecques. On April 28, 1906, Calvocoressi presented a recital on popular Greek song, on which Marguerite Babaïan gave the first performance of the set in its new configuration. These songs were the first of Ravel’s piece to be accepted by prestigious music publisher Durand, who wished to be granted first option on all of his subsequent works. Ravel left his stamp on these accompaniments with their chromatic inflections and reinterpretations of modes, but without destroying their original flavor. “Chanson de la mariée” (Song of the bride) is a lively wake-up call for a bride on her wedding day. Ravel accentuates the modal tune (Phrygian) with his chromatic harmonies, and uses rapid-fire repeated notes to generate excitement. “Là-bas, vers l’église” (There by the church) takes up the same mode, but in gentle, serious reflection on those buried in the cemetery, replete with softly chiming “bells.” “Quel galant m’est comparable” (What gallant compares with me?) begins in a boastful proclamation, takes up a dancelike strut, then indulges in a moment of tenderness, before a brief return to the dance. In “Chanson des cueilleuses de lentisques” (Song of the Lentisk Gatherers) Ravel keeps his setting simple, with floating harmonies and occasional spun-out elebortion for the voice alone. “Tout gai” (All Gay!) cavorts happily in the major mode with no chromatic inflections. Ravel’s alternating-hand patterns provide lively interest to the ebullient “Tra-la-las.” © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes

  • Sonata in A, K. 526, WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791)

    WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791) Sonata in A, K. 526 March 11, 2018: Benjamin Beilman, Violin; Orion Weiss, piano Little is known about the circumstances surrounding the composition of the A major Violin Sonata, K. 526, other than that it was written in August 1787 in Vienna during the composition of Don Giovanni. Mozart himself was an accomplished violinist, but there is no evidence that he wrote it with himself in mind; nor is there evidence that he wrote it for anyone else. It seems unlikely, however, that Mozart would have interrupted work the opera unless some occasion demanded it. Mozart’s violin sonatas span an interesting time in the history of the genre. His earliest violin sonatas belong to the tradition of keyboard sonatas for the amateur to which ad libitum violin (or flute, and sometimes cello) accompaniment could be added if available. His violin sonatas, though called piano sonatas with violin accompaniment(!), exhibit equality and great independence of the two instruments. In the Sonata, K. 526—his last except for K. 547, “a small piano sonata for beginners, with a violin”—the piano and violin are truly equal partners. The contrapuntal textures throughout may suggest Mozart’s study of Bach, but the language remains thoroughly his. The Molto allegro is set in 6/8, an unusual meter for Mozart to use for a first movement. (It is interesting that he also cast the first movement of his other A major Violin Sonata, K. 305, in 6/8, a meter commonly associated with “the hunt,” and indeed the meter he used for the first movement of his Hunt Quartet in B-flat major, K. 458.) The hemiola effects (switching from rhythmic patterns of two groups of three to three groups of two) and extensions of cadential phrase endings constitute some of the delightful features of this sonata-form movement. The Andante, again in sonata form, is remarkable for its spare texture, often achieved by the kind of octave doublings that Brahms later favored. Mozart never ceases to amaze in his ability to create such expressive music with deceptively simple means—fragmented melodic utterances, flowing regular accompaniment, chromatic touches, major-minor shifts—how can these produce such a compelling effect? The finale, though one of Mozart longest in a chamber work, races by at a presto tempo. It combines virtuoso tendencies with an almost demonic high-spirited quality. Mozart scholars Derek Carew and Neal Zaslaw have independently reported that the movement is based on the finale of Carl Friedrich Abel’s A major Violin Sonata, op. 5, no. 5, possibly as a memorial tribute since Abel had died on June (Carew mistakenly says January) 20, 1787. © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes

  • Piano Sonata in F major, K. 533 and K. 494, WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791)

    WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791) Piano Sonata in F major, K. 533 and K. 494 October 4, 2015 – Richard Goode, piano Mozart’s F major Piano Sonata, K. 533 and K. 494, was published by Franz Anton Hoffmeister in 1790, perhaps assuaging part of the composer’s financial debt to his friend. But the work was not newly composed, nor had it all been written at the same time. The Rondo, K. 494, had been completed on June 10, 1786, and the Allegro and Andante, K. 533, on January 3, 1788. When Mozart decided to join these movements to form a complete sonata, he added a twenty-seven-measure “cadenza” toward the end of the Rondo for dramatic weight. Overzealous nineteenth-century editors began publishing the chronologically separated movements independently, fostering a certain reluctance to accept the Sonata as a whole and perhaps inhibiting more frequent performance. Yet the Sonata is regarded by many as a masterpiece and Mozart’s own authority that the components belong together should be trusted. The Allegro’s unpretentious beginning expands into a sonata form on a grand scale. Mozart displays his “late-period” fondness for contrapuntal textures—as in the Jupiter Symphony and other piano sonatas—and takes particular delight in the shift of melodic material between right and left hands. Harmonic adventures such as those in the development become even more pronounced in the expressive Andante, with its chromatic dissonances and bold diminished chords. The lighthearted Rondo refrain provides supreme contrast to the preceding introspection. The movement’s full proportions befit its origin as an independent piece, but it should also be borne in mind that Mozart lengthened rather than shortened the Rondo for inclusion in the Sonata. The music-box effect of the refrain is balanced by its final appearance at the end in the bass register. The “cadenza” that precedes the refrain’s deeper return serves to heighten the drama. © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes


    CHRIS COLETTI, TRUMPET Internationally acclaimed trumpeter Chris Coletti, most known for his work with the legendary Canadian Brass, is a soloist, chamber music/orchestral musician and Assistant Professor at Ithaca College School of Music. Comfortable in many musical styles, he has collaborated with a broad spectrum of musicians ranging from the Metropolitan Opera Brass, New York Philharmonic Principal Brass, Pierre Boulez, Michael Tilson Thomas and Ricardo Muti to Quincy Jones, Carlos Santana, Gloria Estefan and Miami Sound Machine. Chris also performs on the Baroque Trumpet with various early music ensembles in and around NY. Chris regularly performs with NOVUS NY, the all-star contemporary music orchestra of Trinity Church Wall Street in Manhattan. With Canadian Brass, Chris has performed hundreds of concerts in the finest concert halls in the world, countless live TV appearances and radio broadcasts, and regularly appears in front of major symphony orchestras. Chris can be heard on 9 Canadian Brass recordings, most of which feature his original arrangements, and countless other recordings and music videos with world-class artists. Chris got his professional start in 2008 as Principal Trumpet of The Huntsville Symphony Orchestra in Alabama, a position he still holds. As an educator, Chris has taught master classes at top conservatories around the world, and his students have won positions in professional orchestras and have been accepted into top music programs including Manhattan School of Music, McGill University and Tanglewood. Chris’s articles have been featured in notable publications such as the International Trumpet Guild, International Trumpet Guild Youth Journal, SONIC – Magazin für Holz – und Blechinstrumente (Germany) and The Brass Herald (England), and have been translated into German, Spanish, and Japanese. Chris has been a featured guest on many music performance and music business podcasts, and maintains a popular blog and email newsletter for trumpeters and other musicians. Chris received his Masters Degree from The Juilliard School and his Bachelors Degree from Manhattan School of Music. Throughout his education Chris received multiple awards and scholarships, and won a number of competitions including the Music Academy of the West Chamber Concerto Competition, Manhattan School of Music Concerto Competition, LaGuardia Arts Concerto Competition, Staten Island Symphony Concerto Competition, The Tanglewood Music Center Charles E. Culpeper Foundation Fellowship and Susan B. Kaplan Fellowship, The Juilliard School Frieda and Harry Aronson Scholarship, and The Manhattan School of Music President Scholarship. Among his numerous accolades, Chris also has perfect pitch, is a professional whistler, and has the unique ability to sing an operatic high C.

  • Peace for clarinet and piano, Jesse Montgomery

    Jesse Montgomery Peace for clarinet and piano February 18, 2024: Anthony McGill, clarinet; Michael Stephen Brown, piano Biography provided by MKI Artists Jessie Montgomery, Musical America’s 2023 Composer of the Year, is a Grammy-nominated, acclaimed composer, violinist, and educator whose music interweaves classical music with elements of vernacular music, improvisation, poetry, and social consciousness, making her an acute interpreter of twenty-first century American sound and experience. Her profoundly felt works have been described as “turbulent, wildly colorful and exploding with life” (The Washington Post) and are performed regularly by leading orchestras and ensembles around the world. In July 2021 she began a three-year appointment as the Chicago Symphony Orchestra’s Mead Composer-in-Residence. Montgomery’s growing body of work includes solo, chamber, vocal, and orchestral works, as well as collaborations with distinguished choreographers and dance companies. Recent highlights include Hymn for Everyone (2021), her first commission as Mead Composer-in-Residence with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, co-commissioned by the National Symphony Orchestra and Music Academy of the West; Five Freedom Songs, a song cycle conceived with and written for soprano Julia Bullock, for the Sun Valley and Grand Teton Music Festivals, San Francisco, Kansas City, Boston and New Haven Symphony Orchestras, and the Virginia Arts Festival (2021); I was waiting for the echo of a better day, a site-specific collaboration with Bard SummerScape and Pam Tanowitz Dance (2021); Shift, Change, Turn (2019) commissioned by Orpheus and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra; and Banner (2014), written to mark the 200th anniversary of “The Star-Spangled Banner” for the Sphinx Organization and the Joyce Foundation and presented in its UK premiere at the 2021 BBC Proms. Highlights of Montgomery’s 2023–24 season include the world premieres of orchestral works for violinist Joshua Bell, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, a consortium led by the Dallas Symphony Orchestra for New Music USA’s Amplifying Voices program, and a violin duo co-commissioned by CSO MusicNOW and the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Her future projects include a contribution to Alisa Weilerstein’s Fragments project, a percussion quartet, an orchestral work for the New York Philharmonic, and her final commissions as the Chicago Symphony Orchestra’s Mead Composer-in-Residence. Montgomery has been recognized with many prestigious awards and fellowships, including the Civitella Ranieri Fellowship, the Sphinx Medal of Excellence, and the Leonard Bernstein Award from the ASCAP Foundation. She is currently Artist in Residence at the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music, Composer in Residence at Bard College, and, since 1999, has been affiliated with the Sphinx Organization in a variety of roles including composer-in-residence for Sphinx Virtuosi, its professional touring ensemble. A founding member of PUBLIQuartet and a former member of the Catalyst Quartet, Montgomery holds degrees from the Juilliard School and New York University and is currently a doctoral candidate in music composition at Princeton University. * * * Montgomery originally composed Peace on a commission from Victoria Robey OBE for violinist Elena Urioste and pianist Tom Poster, who premiered it on their #UriPosteJukeBox series in May 2020. Outdoing Brahms, who saw to it that his two Opus 120 Sonatas work equally on clarinet or viola, Montgomery made Peace available not only for violin and piano but for viola and piano and clarinet and piano, in which version we hear it this evening. Montgomery described her brief piece thus: “Written just a month after the Great Sadness of the first quarantine orders due to COVID-19, facing the shock felt by the whole globe as well as personal crisis, I find myself struggling to define what actually brings me joy. And I’m at a stage of making peace with sadness as it comes and goes like any other emotion. I’m learning to observe sadness for the first time not as a negative emotion, but as a necessary dynamic to the human experience.” —compiled by Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes

  • Toccata in D, BMV 912, JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750)

    JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750) Toccata in D, BMV 912 March 19, 2023 – Rachel Naomi Kudo, piano Bach composed seven manualiter toccatas, BWV 910–916, whose designation toccata refers to pieces that display a keyboardist’s dexterity and manualiter means “hands only” as opposed to those requiring pedals. Therefore these pieces were to be played on a keyboard instrument other than organ—such as the harpsichord in the eighteenth century. Bach never collected these toccatas under a single title, but they represent the culmination of the genre, begun in the sixteenth century and in Bach’s case likely influenced by early Baroque German models comprised of several distinct contrasting sections. Precise dating has proved impossible, but scholars typically designate a range of “?before 1708” to “before 1714,” which places them before or during his tenure at the court of Weimar. The date often given for the D major Toccata, BWV 912, is “before 1710,” with an early version possibly dating from c. 1707. That could have been during Bach’s year in Mühlhausen, June 1707–June 1708, or in Arnstadt where he was organist from 1703 to 1707. In June 1708 Bach took up the post of court organist at Weimar, where Duke Wilhelm Ernst is said to have greatly enjoyed Bach’s playing, so it is likely that Bach himself performed his toccatas for his employer. It is equally possible that they could have been played by one or more of his talented students, but there is no specific evidence that he intended them for teaching, as he did with other works (mentioned above in connection with the French Suites). The D major Toccata, like the other six, closes with a fugue and like all but one (G major, BWV 916) opens with an improvisatory prelude. This brief lively opening is striking for its similarity to the D major organ Prelude and Fugue, BWV 532, which may date from around the same time, especially as to its to ascending scales, which Bach extends locally and employs in dramatic descents in the extended Adagio transition to the first fugue. Prior to that, however, the prelude brings on a captivating Allegro that unfolds with rondo-like recurring passages. Modulatory excursions into the minor mode and similar journeys in the ensuing recitative-like Adagio prepare for the first fugue in F-sharp minor. This fugue offers a somewhat introspective exploration of that key with three expositions of the simultaneous subject/countersubject pair, seamlessly connected by two brief episodes. Following another dramatic declamatory transition, the final fugue gallops along in 6/16 meter much like a perpetual-motion gigue until its final arresting bars. For the C minor Toccata, BWV 911, scholars suggest a date of “before 1714,” which was the year Bach added the title and rank of Konzertmeister to the post of court organist that he had begun at Weimar in 1708. Thus its earliest performers were likely the same as for the D major Toccata above and the other manualiter toccatas, that is, Bach himself or possibly his sons or students. The C minor Toccata begins with an improvisatory, ornate-style introduction, followed by a relatively short Adagio, maintaining a lamenting mood. The main portion of the piece consists of a massive fugue, interrupted by a recitative-like passage, after which Bach introduces a second subject and launches into a double fugue (treatment of his two subjects in contrapuntal combination). A majestic adagio passage brings Bach’s mighty work to a close. © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes


    SIHAO HE, CELLO Cellist Sihao He first came into international prominence in 2008 as a 14-year old cellist winning first prize at the International Antonio Janigro Cello Competition in Croatia. Later that same year, he sealed his great promise by winning the National Cello Competition in his native China. He is also the Grand Prize winner of the prestigious 3rd Gaspar Cassadó International Cello Competition in Japan, a laureate of the Queen Elizabeth International Cello Competition International and Tchaikovsky Competition for Young Musicians. In 2019, he won 3rd prize in Munich’s ARD International Music Competition. Sihao has appeared in numerous concerts both as a soloist with leading orchestras and in recitals. After winning the Grand Prize at the 3rd Gaspar Cassado Competition he performed a recital tour in Japan and China. His recital in Tokyo’s Yomiuri Otemachi Hall music Critic Masahiko Yu wrote the following in his review: “First prize winner of the 3rd Cassado competition Shanghai born cellist Sihao He is a big scaled splendid cellist who played a very technically demanding program like a magician”. In the US, important performances took place before audiences at the Metropolitan Museum, the U.S Supreme Court Historical Society in Washington D.C and a recital at the Myra Hess Concert series in Chicago. As a soloist, Sihao has performed with many leading orchestras including the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Munich Radio Orchestra, Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra, Brussels Philharmonic, Münchener Kammer orchester, Royal de Chambre de Wallonie, Orquestra the Sinfônica de Piracicaba in Brazil, and the Xiamen Philharmonic in China. In March 2020, Sihao was chosen to be a member of the prestigious Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center’s The Bowers Program (formerly CMS Two). As a chamber musician, Sihao appeared at the Shanghai New Music Week, the Shanghai Electronic Music Week, in the US at the Music@Menlo and in Europe at the Rome festival. He has performed together with Joseph Silverstein, Pinchas Zuckerman, Donald Weilerstein and the Calidore Quartet. Before coming to the US his string Quartet, Simply Quartet, won first prize at the Haydn Invitational Chamber Music Competition in Shanghai, China and was awarded “The Most Promising Young String Quartet” at the 4th Beijing International Chamber Music Competition. Born in Shanghai, China, Sihao He holds a Bachelor’s degree from the Robert McDuffie Center for Strings at Mercer University where he studied with Hans Jorgen Jensen and Julie Albers, and a Master’s Degree from the Bienen School of Music at Northwestern University. Mr. He is currently attending the Bienen School of Music at Northwestern University for his D.M.A. degree under the tutelage of Hans Jørgen Jensen. In addition to playing the cello, Sihao is a brilliant Snooker and Billiard player.

  • Piano Trio in E-flat major, D. 929, op. 100, FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797-1828)

    FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797-1828) Piano Trio in E-flat major, D. 929, op. 100 October 30, 2016: Wu Han, piano; Philip Setzer, violin; David Finckel, cello Schubert made four contributions to the piano trio literature, two full-fledged trios—B-flat major, op. 99, and E-flat major, op. 100—and two one-movement pieces—the early Sonatensatz, D. 28 (1812), and the Adagio in E-flat, D. 897, sometimes called Notturno. Though the precise dating of the B-flat major Trio remains somewhat of a mystery, both the B-flat and the E-flat trios are known to have been composed close to the same time, about a year before his death. The manuscript of the E-flat Trio states that it was begun in November 1827; the finale was probably completed in December. The two trios, though considerably contrasting in character, show a typical Schubertian tendency to work on more than one major work in the same genre, if not simultaneously then in quick succession. The Notturno, which may have been intended as a movement for the B-flat Trio, was also composed around that time. Outside of songs and a few operas, most of Schubert’s compositions were not performed publicly during his lifetime, though many were heard at the private musical evenings known as “Schubertiads.” The E-flat major Trio was one of the few that received a public performance, at the only public concert of his works that Schubert instigated before his death. The concert took place at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna on March 28, 1828, to an overflow crowd containing many ardent Schubert supporters who loudly voiced their approval; the concert also helped Schubert’s ailing finances. The Trio—played by pianist Carl Maria von Bocklet, violinist Joseph Böhm (not Schuppanzigh as is sometimes reported), and cellist Josef Linke—formed the centerpiece of the concert, which also included a string quartet movement, several songs, and a piece for double male chorus. Despite the success of the concert, the event was largely eclipsed by the Paganini frenzy that soon held Vienna in its grip. Schubert’s growing recognition, however, was reflected in the fact that two publishers outside Vienna—B. Schott of Mainz and H. A. Probst of Leipzig—began asking Schubert for works to publish, hoping mainly for “easy” pieces that would sell well, such as songs and piano duets. Probst eventually offered to publish the E-flat Trio for about one-quarter of the going rate for piano trios, saying “a trio is a luxury article that rarely brings in a profit.” Schubert felt obliged to accept the offer on May 10, 1828, in view of his financial situation, asking only for “the swiftest possible publication.” Schubert wrote to Probst on August 1 that “this work is dedicated to nobody but those who find pleasure in it.” On October 2 he still had to “beg to inquire when the Trio is at last to appear. . . . I wait its appearance with longing.” Regrettably, Schubert died one month before the first copies reached Vienna. Both the B-flat and E-flat trios show Schubert’s expansive approach to Classical forms, the B-flat lasting approximately thirty-six minutes and the E-flat about forty-four, which as Joseph Braunstein pointed out is longer than all the Beethoven symphonies except the Third and the Ninth. The sonata-form first movement of the E-flat Trio is built on four themes—the unison opening, which returns to signal the recapitulation and to conclude the work, the scherzo-like main theme, a more hesitant second theme, and a lyrical closing theme. One of the most striking aspects of the movement is that Schubert uses the last of these as the basis of the development. Schubert’s friend Leopold von Sonnleithner reported that the composer had made use of a Swedish folk song in the Andante con moto, and, indeed, Schubert had heard several Swedish folk songs sung by Isak Albert Berg (later the teacher of the famous Jenny Lind) at the home of his musical friends the four Fröhlich sisters. Eventually, in 1978 musicologist Manfred Willfort showed the source of Schubert’s material to be “Se solen sjunker” (The Sun Is Setting) from a manuscript “5 Swedish Folk Songs . . . composed by Mr. B.” Schubert’s use of the folk song constitutes an absorption into his own expressive style rather than a simple quotation as seen in the example below. Despite his “Scherzo” label, Schubert referred to the third movement in a letter to Probst as a minuet, which was to be played “at a moderate pace and piano throughout.” And indeed the Scherzo, which opens canonically, suggests older models. “The trio, on the other hand,” wrote Schubert, should be “vigorous except where p and pp are marked.” Its heavy accents provide great contrast to the more graceful outer Scherzo sections. Schubert’s finale is remarkably progressive in its recall of earlier movements—such “cyclic” procedures were to become common with Romantic composers. The movement has often been criticized for its length, and Schubert himself made cuts in it which he told Probst “are to be scrupulously observed” in the engraving. In a reversal of his usual editorial practice, Brahms restored Schubert’s cut material when he prepared the movement for the new critical edition of Schubert’s works, making the finale over 1,000 measures(!), and adding to the decisions modern performers have to make. The movement’s expansiveness also brings to mind Schumann’s notorious phrase “heavenly length” in regard to Schubert’s Ninth Symphony, or the quip about Schubert often attributed to Stravinsky: “What does it matter if, on hearing these works, I doze off now and then, so long as, on awakening, I always find myself in Paradise?” © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes

  • Double Violin Concerto in D Minor BWV 1043, JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750)

    JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750) Double Violin Concerto in D Minor BWV 1043 March 24, 2019: Paul Huang, violin; Danbi Um, violins; Sarah Crocker Vonsattel, violin; Kristin Lee, violin; Pierre Lapointe, viola; Mihai Marica, cello; Tim Cobb, bass; Gilles Vonsattel, harpsichord An accomplished violinist as well as keyboard player, Bach wrote at least six concertos for one or more violins and a number combining violin with other types of solo instruments. He intended the solo parts for himself or for his qualified students or professional colleagues, including several of his own sons. The celebrated “Double” Concerto is in fact a concerto grosso, in which a small solo group (concertino)—here two violins—is contrasted with a larger group (ripieno or tutti). Accordingly Bach titled his manuscript: Concerto à 6, 2 violini concertini, 2 violini e 1 viola di ripieni, violoncello e continuo di J. S. Bach. It was once thought that Bach had composed the work between 1717 and 1723 in Cöthen where he composed the Brandenburg Concertos, but scholar Christoph Wolff has convincingly suggested that he composed this Concerto as well as the A minor Violin Concerto, BWV 1041, around 1730 to 1731 in Leipzig where he directed the Collegium Musicum. This music society, founded at the University in 1702 by then student-of-jurisprudence Georg Philipp Telemann, was made up primarily of students under professional leadership. Bach directed the group from 1729 until the early 1740s (with a short interruption from 1737 to 1739). The Collegium presented public community concerts, one of the first organizations to do so in Germany, and ultimately led to the Leipzig Gewandhaus, which remains the most important musical organization of that city. During Bach’s tenure with the Collegium he constantly needed to produce all manner of music for their weekly performances: overtures, duo and trio sonatas, sinfonias and concertos, including keyboard concertos, which he often performed with his sons and pupils as soloists. A longtime admirer of the works of Antonio Vivaldi, Bach employed the concerto form he standardized in the eighteenth century—three movements: fast, slow, fast. He also availed himself of Vivaldi’s ritornello form (in which a refrain alternates with episodic excursions), though adapted in his own way, and with his particular contrapuntal leanings. All three movements of the Double Concerto make use of or allude to ritornello form. The opening Vivace’s first tutti statement occurs as a fugal exposition, an unusual feature for concertos in general, but a device Bach also used in the finale of the above-mentioned A minor Concerto. In the Largo, ma non tanto, one of Bach’s most beautiful and heart-stirring slow movements, the soloists dominate. The way in which the solo parts intertwine, often weaving lovely chains of suspensions, continues to create a fascinating and moving effect no matter how many times one has heard the work. The opening theme, begun by the second solo violin, recurs in the manner of a ritornello, yet there are no “tuttis”—the accompaniment provides a continual soft rhythmic background, only to come briefly to the fore for cadential reinforcement. The finale, Allegro, begins with a rhythmic cascade of close imitative counterpoint and unfolds in a free ritornello structure. Of special interest are the episodes in which, reversing their roles, the solo violins play broad four-part chords while the orchestra provides the motivic interest. The movement’s rhythmic drive creates a hypnotic momentum. © Jane Vial Jaffe Return to Parlance Program Notes


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